National Organization of Organic Farmers

Herbal Farming Economics

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Plants Cultivation Economics
Cultivation Practices
 
Given the demands of the market for a continuous and uniform supply of raw materials, and the increasing depletion of the forest resource base, expanding the number of medicinal plants in cultivation appears to be an important strategy for research and development. However, according to one estimate, of more than 400 plant species used for production of medicines by Indian Industry, less than 20 are currently under the cultivation in the country.1The potential returns to the farmer from cultivation of medicinal plants is reported to be quite high. A 1995 study suggested that the cultivation of certain high altitude Himalayan herbs could yield products priced anywhere between Rs. 7,150 to 55,000 per hectare although it is not clear at which point in the marketing chain these prices are paid (Nautiyal 1995).2 What is clear however is that although estimates of returns vary widely, medicinal plants can be valuable crops. Rao and Saxena (1994) reported average annual (per hectare) income of Rs. 120,000 through mixed cropping of high altitude medicinal herbs. High altitude medicinal tend to command higher prices but those of lower altitudes are still significant. Data for some low-altitude crops from the Amarkantak region of Madhya Pradesh show economic returns for four profitable species. Cultivation is clearly a sustainable alternative to collection of medicinal plants from the wild.3
Economic Returns of Cultivated Species in Amarkantak Region, Madhya Pradesh
Species

*Yield Aveage

 

(kg/ha)

*Average Market Rate(Rs./kg) Makret Value 
(Rs.)
Total Expenses (Rs.) *Net Return
(Rs.)
Curcuma angustifolia 9,800 6.00 58,800 10,760 48,040
           
Rauwolfia serpentina 850 150.00 127500 20,000 107500
           
Acorus Calamus 1600 30.00 48,000 15000 33000
 Stevia in 3 Years 4500  100  4500,000 2,00,000  250,000 
Chlorophytum Borri.(Safed Musli) 400 900.00 360,000 210,000 150,000

     * These are indicative data,s only,Because,Yield,Iiput cost,Wages, as well as Market prices are variable and depends on many relevent factors.You are advised to go through,

  1. Report of the committee on Medicinal Plants submitted to GOI in May 1997Nautiyal M.c 1995 – cultivation of medicinal plants and Biosphere Reserve Management in Alpine zones.
  2. Tewari D.N. Cultivation of Medicinal Plants – unpublished manuscript
 
Most of the produce of cultivated medicinal and aromatic plants is exported as crude drugs e.g. Psyllium, senna leaves, opium poppy and Asgand. Unfortunately, however, due to emphasis being placed on important cash crops, as well as the fact that the majority of the cultivated species are not indigenous to India, most cultivation efforts are not alleviating the pressure being exerted on the natural resource base.Nevertheless, a number of techniques have been developed to increase the quality and yield of many of the cultivated species. It is estimated that Indian public sector research institutions have developed standardized practices for the propagation and agronomy of a total of about 40 species.Much of the research progress to date has resulted from the decision of the Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) to establish an All-India Coordinated Research Project on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants(AICRPMAP), in 1972, under the auspices of the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR). Efforts have mainly focused on the development of agro-technology techniques, including propagation methods for medicinal and aromatic plants. Aromatic plants have however tended to receive more attention, perhaps because their market values are in general more widely known.ICAR works through a network of research stations, including the National Research Centre for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants located in Anand, Gujarat, which specializes in domestication, and has created structural links between the NBPGR and its Plant Breeding Division in order to develop improved varieties of some of the medicinal plant species used in allopathic preparations.Another major national public research organisation, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), has also played a significant role with regard to cultivation of medicinal plants, through its creation of (CIMAP), the Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, in Lucknow. CIMAP is now an eminent institution in India focusing on agro-technology as well as basic studies; improvement and enhancement of the resource base, and chemistry and related research regarding product development from plants.In connection with the two major research efforts described above, the Central Government initiated a five year program (1992-1997) implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture to accelerate research and development of medicinal plants. With the support of 16 state agricultural universities, state horticulture and agriculture departments, regional research laboratories and the International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), the GOI is establishing herbal gardens, nursery centres and demonstration seed production centres nation-wide.Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (Department of ISM&H) started a "central scheme for development and cultivation of medicinal plants" in the year 1990-91 to encourage development of agrotechnique for important species through Govt/semi-government organisations having expertise and infrastructure for this work. The scheme is expected to initiate studies on harvesting, drying, and storage of medicinal plants.Private companies have also started to invest in the cultivation of medicinal plants, since they face difficulties with regard to increasing supply gaps as well as in some cases adulterated materials from the wild. One such company, the Arya Vaidya Sala, in Kottakal, Kerala, in addition to maintaining two large herbal gardens, has also undertaken research on the propagation of 10 species, the demand for which currently outstrips supply, or may soon do so.Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Under Reproductive Child Health (RCH) programme it was decided to include Ayurvedic & Unani medicines, and, to ensure the availability of raw material of good quality and quantity, "Vanaspati Van Yojna" was incorporated. Each Vanaspati Van was to be identified over waste lands and denuded forest of 3000 to 5000 hectare of contiguous areas. Since the forestland cannot be transferred and sold, the interested State Governments were advised to register a society under the Society Registration Act in the name of Vanaspati Van Society for a particular State. The Society was to be headed by the Forest Officer with the members from the Department of Family Welfare and from the Department of Indian Systems of Medicine in its Executive Committee. The experts of forest, agriculture, botany, Ayurveda and Unani were also incorporated in the Executive Committee. Keeping in view the geo-climatic conditions suitable for medicinal plants the conservation and propagation of about 100 plants species in the "Vanaspati Van" are encouraged in in-situ/ex-situconditions. The site of the Vanaspati Van and suitability of the plants are identified by the Expert group of Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, and the State Government. There is a provision of providing assistance of Rs.1.00 crore per year for a period of 5 years. Subsequently the Vanaspati Van Society will be self-sustained by scientific harvesting the produce for the benefit of the community as well as the society.The State Governments of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh have started implementing this scheme and the State Governments of Rajasthan, Karnataka, Kerala, Gujarat, U.P. and Tamilnadu are also approaching with the proposals. The ultimate objectives of the Scheme is to have at least one Vanaspati Van in each State so as to have full range of medicinal plants used in ISM. Scheme for improving awareness and availability of medicinal plants and remedies of Indian Systems of Medicine for RCH. Because of pressure of population the cultivation of food grains and commercial crops has progressively practically eliminated locally growing medicinal plants and because of the vast changes in the social system, the family traditions have also become weak.Worldwide there has been a huge growth in the popularity of alternative medicine and herbal products mainly due to their being no harmful side effects when genuine medicinal plants are used.To address both these problems and to resurrect a highly cost effective preventive health and medical care system the NGOs will be assisted for raising nurseries of medicinal plants which are known to grow in that particular area. They will distribute the medicinal plants free of charge to desirous families and village level ISM practitioners.These practitioners will be encouraged to grow these plants over a somewhat larger piece of land about 1-2 acres (if that can be managed). This will enable the products of these medicines to be not only readily available but to be available in a pure form.The NGOs will also be simultaneously assisted to do extension work and educate local population about the uses of locally available medicinal plants for preventive health and for curative purposes.In order to ensure impact, NGOs will be asked to take up this work on a project basis for a district and only a few of the NGOs with proven large capability will be assigned more than one district.The applicant NGO having experience and expertise of medicinal plants in ISM will identify one district to propagate the ISM remedies. There is a provision of up to Rs.15.00 lakh per year for the scheme and the scheme can continue three to four years.For improving awareness and availability of medicinal plants the task force recommends cultivation of 25 species which are in great demand.  
 
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Plants in High Demand

AONLA CHANDAN KALMEGH SATAVARI
ASWAHAGANDHA CHIRATA KATKI SHANKAPUSHPI
ASHOKA GILOE KOKUM SAFED MUSLI
ATIS GUGGAL KERTH SENNA
BAIBERANG INDIAN BARBERY LIQORICE  
BAEL ISABGOL LONG PEPPER  
BRAHMI JATAMANSI MADHUNASHINI  

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AONLA
1. Name of Medicinal Plant Emblica officinalis Gaertn
2. Family Euphorbiaceae

A deciduous tree, found in deciduous forests of the country upto 1350 m. on hills. Often cultivated.

3. Area 1300 ha
4. Production 88200 t
5. Important States UP, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra
6. Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones released/identified

Banarasi, Chakaiya, Francis, Kanchan, Krishna, Balwant, NA-6, NA-7, NA-9, Anand-2 and BS-1.
  ii. Propagation methods and planting time Modified ring, patch and shield budding as well as soft wood grafting.

June to August

  iii.Fertilizer dozes 1000 gm N, 500 gm P2O2 and 750 gm K 2O per plant/year. The fertilizer should be given in two split doses viz. Sep – Oct and April – May.
  iv.Irrigation schedule Irrigation to young plantation at 10 days interval during the summer. To fruit bearing plantations, first irrigation should be given just after manuring and fertilization and then at 15 days intervals after fruit set (April) till onset of monsoon. Avoid irrigation during flowering period.
  v. Diseases, pests and their control: Diseases/causitive

Organism/agent ------------------------------ Aonla rust (Ravenellia emblica) Fruit rot (Pencillum islandlium) Necrosis (Boron Deficiency) Bark eating caterpillar (Inderbela tetraonis) Shoot gall maker (Betousa stylophora) Aphid (Cerciaphis emblica) Scale insect Anar butterfly

(Virachola isocrates)

Control measures

------------------------------- Spray (twice) Dithane Z 78(0.2%) during July- September. Treating the fruits with Nacl solutions. Spray of 0.5% - 0.6% borax in Sept–October Months. Injecting kerosene oil/ Dichlorovols or Endo- Sulfan (0.05%) in holes and plugging with mud Galled twigs should be pruned. Spray of 0.05% monocrotophos during rainy season Spraying of dimethoate @ 0.03% Application of mono- Crotophos @ 0.05%

Remove and destroy all the affected fruits.

7. Planting time

i) Rainy season

ii) Spring season

July to September

Mid of January to March

8. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

The fruit is rich source of vitamins and minerals. High vitamin C content (750-850 mg/100 gram pulp)
9. Post Harvest Management Different varieties mature at different period e.g Chakaiya (January), Banarasi (October end), Krishna (December) and Francis (mid November – December). Large size fruits (4 cm. & above) free from blemishes are used for preserve, candy and pickle. Small sized fruits are used for chavanprash making and defective fruits are used for Trifala making. Generally, basket for pigeon pea stem and gunny bag of 40-50 kg capacity with newspaper as liners are used for packing of aonla fruits. However, wooden crate with polythene lines is most suitable for packing and long distance transportation.

Aonla fruits can be stored upto 15-20 days at low temperature (10-15o C). However Chakaiya can be stored upto 45 and 75 days in 10% and 15% salt solution respectively without any decay.

10. Cost of Cultivation Cost benefit ratio is 1:4. Pay back period is six years.
11. Internal consumption and export potential Export potential yet to be exploited. Huge internal demand in ISM.
12. Action and uses Aperient, aphrodisiac, astringent, digestive, diuretic, laxative, refrigerant and tonic. Useful in anaemia, jaundice, dyspepcia, haemorrhagic disorders, bilionsness, diabetes, asthma, bronchitis. An Ayurvedic preparation Chyavanprasha is very much valued for its restorative action
13. Compound Preparations Chyavanprasha, Dhatri Lauha, Amalki Rasayana.

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2. ASWAHAGANDHA

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Withania somnifera Dunal
2. Family Solanaceae
3. Yield

Plant Part

300-400 kg roots/ha + 50-75 kg seeds/

ha

4. Actual Ingredients Withaferin, Anaferin, Tropine and many other Alkaloides and Steriodes
5. Important States Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan
6. Cultural Practices

i)Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

Jawahar Asgandh – 20, Jawahar Asgandh 134 and Rakshita
  ii)Propagation methods and planting time Direct sowing of seeds (Broadcasting)

Planting time in 3rd week of August to September.

  iii) Fertilizer doges The crop is mainly grown on residual fertility. Hence, no fertilizers applied
  iv) Irrigation schedule Rainfed
  iv) Diseases, pests and their control Major disease is damping off, seedling rotting, seedling blight. Seed treatment with Captan 3 g/kg seed is recommended.
7. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Alkaloids and Steroids
8. Post Harvest Management The crop is ready in six month, harvesting starts from January and continues upto March. Average yield 400-500 kg of root and 50 kg seed/ha. Cleaning, drying and grading of roots.
9. Cost of cultivation

(Cost : benefit ratio)

About Rs.1000/ha and gross return about Rs.2800 (CB ratio 1:2:8)
10. Internal consumption and export potential Huge internal consumption also being exported.
11. Any other remarks Immunomodulator/Rasayan drug, general tonic in arthritis.
12. Action and uses Alterative, aphrodisiac, tonic, deobstruent, diuretic, narcotic, abortifacient. Used in rheumatism, consumption , debility from old age.
13. Parts used Root
14. Compound preparation Ashwagandhadi churna, Ashwagandha rasayana, Ashwagandha Ghrit, Ashwagandharishta

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3. ASHOKA

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Saraca asoca (roxb.) Dc Wild.
2. Family Leguminosae
3. Local Name Ashoka
4. Habit and Habitat A small evergreen tree 6-9 m. high, found wild along steams or in the shade of evergreen forests. It occurs almost throughout India up to an altitude of 720 m in the Centre and Eastern Himalayas & khasi, Garo & Lushai hills. It is also found in the Andaman islands. Leaves pari-pinnate, 15-20 cm long, leaflets 6-12, oblong, lanceolate, flowers organe or orange-yellow, very fragrant, pods flat, leathery, seeds 4-8, ellipsoid-oblong.
5. Important Habitat Himalayas, Bengal and Western Peninsula.
6. Cultural Practices

i.Propagation methods and planting time

ii.Irrigation Schedule

Seeds. Seedlings are raised and planted in rainy season

Rainfed

7. Biochemical analysis

(Active Ingredients)

Haematoxylin, tannins and glycoside, leucopelargonidin and leucoeyanidin have been extracted from the barks
8. Post Harvest Management Bark is removed and sun dried for use in preparation of various herbal medicines.
9. Utilisation The bark is reported to stimulate the uterus, making the contractions more frequent and prolonged without producing tonic contraction as in the case of pituitary ergot. It is also reported to cure biliousness dyspepsia, dysentery, colic, piles and pimples. Leaves possess blood purifying properties. Flowers used in dysentery and diabetes.
10. Plant used Bark
11. Actual Ingredients Tannin and Catechol
12. Internal consumption and export potential Internal consumption is quite high in pharmaceutical industries. Good export potential
13. Action and uses Astringent, used in menorrhagia and uterine affections, internal bleeding, bleeding haemorrhoids and haemorrhagic dysentry.
14. Compound Preparations Ashokarishta, Ashokaghrita

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4.ATIS

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Aconitum heterophyllum Wall
2. Family Ranunculaceae
3. Use of

Plant Part

Actual Ingredients

Root

Alkaloids (atisine 0.4%)

4. Important Habitats Common in Alpine and subalpine zone of the Himalayas from Indus to Kumaon from 6000 to 15000 ft. from the sea level.
5. Cultural Practices Local clones

Propagation through seeds in rainy season

6. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Root alkaloids: hetrophylsive, hetrophylline and hetrophyllidine, heteratisine, artisine, altidine, F – dihydroatisine, Isatisine, Hetisine, Hetidines and Hetisinone.
7. Post Harvest Management Roots are dried and powdered
8. Cost of cultivation Not exploited commercially.
9. Internal consumption and exports Roots are exported
10. Action and Uses Antipyretic, antiperiodic, aphrodisiac, astringent, tonic. Used in diarrhoea, indigestion, cough, troubles during dentition in children.
11. Compound Preparations Balachaturbhadra, Ativishadi Churna

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5. BAI BERANG

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Embelia ribes Burm. F
2. Family Myrsinaceae
3. Habit and Habitat A scandant shrub, reported to be distributed in the hilly parts of India, Assam and Tamil Nadu upto to 1700 m.
4. Plant Part used Fruits
5. Actual Ingredients Embelin (2.5-3.1%)
6. Cultural Practices

i)Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

Local types
  ii)Propagation methods and

planting time

Seeds are sown in rainy season
7. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients

Embelin, raponone, homoembelin and homorapanone, quercitol, christembine.
8. Post Harvest Management Fully mature fruits are harvested and dried in sun.
9. Action and uses Anthelmintic, alterative, astringent, carminative, stimulant and tonic. Used in colic, constipation, flatulence and worms.
10. Compound Preparations Vidangadi churna, Vidanga lauha, Vidanga taila.

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6. BAEL

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Aegle marmelos L.Corr.
2. Family Rutaceae
3. Habit and Habitat A small or medium sized tree, distributed throughout the country.
4. Yield 7500 t
  Plant Part used Fruits and leaves (200-400 fruits/tree)
  Actual Ingredients Non reducing sugars, essential oil, abscisic acid and marmelosin.
5. Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

Released/identified

Some well known types have been named according to fruit shape and locality e.g Mirzapuri, Darogaji, Ojha, Rampuri etc. Some improved selections are: NB-4, NB-5, NB-9.
  ii.Propagation methods and

and planting time

Vegetative propagation by Patch budding in June-July.
  iii.Fertilizer dose For 8 years old and onwards trees, 80 kg FYM, 480 g N, 320 g P and 480 g K/ tree/year is recommended.
  iv.Irrigation In the initial years, plants require frequent irrigation. Once established, light irrigation should be given after manuring and fertilization and proper soil moisture may be maintained after fruit set.
  v.Diseases, pests and their

control

Name Control Measures

----------------------------------------------------- Bacterial shot Spray of streptomycin Hole sulphate @ 500 ppm. (Xanthomonas controls this disease. Bilvae) Fruit canker Precaution should be taken so that fruit is Not hurt during plucking Also during transporta- tion, the fruit should

Be packed tightly.

6. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Protein (1.8%), Fat (0.39%), minerals (1.7%), Carbohydrate (31.8%), Carotena (55 mg/100 fruit), thiamine (0.13 mg/100g), riboflavin (1.190 mg/100).
7. Post Harvest Management At the time of harvest, tree become leafless and fruits get completely exposed. The fruits are picked individually from the tree keeping a portion of fruit stalk. Fruits are usually packed in gunny bags, baskets or wooden crates using newspaper as cushioning material. Fruits are quite hardy and they can be stored well at ambient temperature. However, fruits can be stored for 12 weeks at 9oC.
8. Internal consumption and export potential Fruits are mostly consumed in our country. Export potential to be explored.
9. Cost of cultivation Cost-benefit ratio is 1:3 and pay back period is six years.
10. Action and uses Aromatic, astringent, carminative, cooling, laxative, febrifuge, stomachic; used in colitis, diarrhoea, dysentery and flatulence. Root is also an ingredient of Dashmoola.
11. Parts used Fruits, root bark, leaves, rind of the ripe fruit, flowers.
12. Compound Preparations Bilwapanchaka Kwath, Bilwandi Churna, Dashmoola rishta, Dashmools Kwath.
13. Any other remarks Presence of marmelosin in fruits has anthelminitic activity.

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7. BRAHMI

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Bacopa monnieri L
2. Family Scrophulariaceae
3. Yield

Plant part

Actual Ingredients

Whole plant especially leaves (100 kg dry herb/ha)

Alkaloid, brahmine

4. Habit & Habitat A small herb found throughout India upto 4000 feet. Plant an annual, creeper is mostly found near water-logged place.
5. Cultural Practices

i. Varieties/Types/Clones

Released/identified

Subodhak and Pragyashakti
  ii. Propagation methods and

planting time

By runners and by seeds,

In rainy season

  iii.Fertilizer doses 100 kg N/ha in three splits; 60 kg P205

60 kg K2O/ha at the time of planting

  iv.Irrigation After sowing/transplating
6. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Plant contains bacosides A & B, bacogenins, stigmasterol, stigmaotanol B-sitosterol. Leaves give herpestine. Monnierin is also isolated from the plant.
7. Post Harvest Management Harvesting in October-November
8. Cost of cultivation

Gross return

Net return

Rs.35,000 / ha

Rs.2,00,000 / ha

Rs. 1,65,000 / ha

9. Internal consumption and export potential Having internal and external demand.
10. Uses Used as nervine tonic/memory enhancer
11. Compound Preparations Brahmighrit, Sarasvatarisht, Brahmivati.

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8. CHANDAN

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Santalum album Linn
2. Family Santalaceae
3. Actual Ingredients Essential oil (1.5-6%)
4. Distribution A small evergreen tree, distributed in dry scrub forests of Salem, Mysore, 
Coorg, Coimbatore, Nilgiris upto 900 m. altitude. Also reported to be found in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamilnadu.
5. Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones released/identified

Local type
  ii.Propagation methods and planting time By seed and grafting. Seedlings are raised in polythene bags and plants during rainy season.
  iii.Ferilizer dozes 20t FYM/ha. Fertilizer requirement not yet worked out.
  iv. Irrigation schedule Rainfed
  v.Diseases, pests and their control Spike disease is common which is caused by mycoplasma. Under severe infection, the whole plant dies. Jassids (Pentacephala nigrilines), Fulgoroides and sandal wood beetle are important insects reported to cause considerable loss.
6. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Alphasantalal, beta santalol and alphs and beta santalene are the main constituents in the oil.
7. Post Harvest Management Sandal wood trees are harvested at the age of 30-60 years. The soft wood is first removed, the hard wood is chipped and then converted into powder in a mill. The powder is soaked in water for 48 hours and then distilled. Distillation takes place in 48 hours. The oil is rectified by redistillation and filtration.
8. Internal consumption and export potential Export of sandal wood chips and oil and dust was 552.2 and 29.5 t respectively during 1995-96. Besides our internal consumption in cosmetics and perfumery industries is also high.
9. Action and use Antiphlogistic, antiseptic, cooling and styptic. The wood round up with water into a fine parts is commonly applied to local infammations, to the temples in fever and to skin diseases to allay heat and pruritus. It is internally administered in cystitis, gonorrhoea, haemorrhagia, urinary disorders and gleet.
10. Compound Preparations Chandanasava.

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9. CHIRATA

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Swertia chirata syn.

S.Chirata Buch – Ham.

2. Family Gentianaceae
3. Use

Plant part

Actual Ingredients

Whole plant used

Alkaloids

4. Habit and Habitat An erect herb, found in temperate Himalayas between 1300-3000 m. from Kashmir to Bhutan and Khasia hills. It is scarcely available in the market and generally substituted by Andrograpis paniculata Nees or other species of Swertia.
5. Cultural Practices

i. Propagation methods and planting time

Propagated by seeds. The seeds are sown in the nursery and then seedlings are transplanted in the field.
  ii.Fertilizer doses FYM is ideal for these plants
  iii.Disease Some species of this genus are reported to serve as alternate host of blister rust of Pinus.
6. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingradients)

Plant contains alkaloids – gentianine, gentiocrucine, enicoflaving, swer – chirin. Plant is antiinflammatory, swerchirin – antimalarial, hypoglycaemic.
7. Post Harvest Management Drying of plants
8. Internal consumption and export potential Huge demand in ISM and was imported at a tune of 58.22 t valued at Rs.14.61 lakhs in 1995-96.
9. Action and uses Bitter, tonic, stomachic, laxative, febrifuge. Used in anorexia, biliary disorders, cough, constipation, fevers, skin diseases, worms.
10. Compound Preparation Kiratadi Kwath, Sudarshan Churna.

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10. GILOE

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Tinospora cordifolia wild miers, ex hook
2. Family Meninspermaceae
3. Local Name Giloe
4. Habit & Habitat A large, glabrous, deciduous climbing shrub found throughout tropical India. Ascending to an altitude of 300 m. Stem rather succulent with long filiform flesh aerial roots from the branches. Bark gray-brown or creamy white. Leaves membranous, cordate with a broad sinus. Flowers small, yellow or greenish yellow, appearing when the plant is leafless. Drupes ovoid, glossy, succulent, red. Seed curved.
5. Propagation The Plant is sometimes cultivated as ornamental & propagated by cuttings.
6. Utilisation The plant is used in general debilities, dyspepsia, fever & urinary disease. The leaves are good as fodder for cattle and rich in proteins and fairly in calcium and phosphorous.

A decoction of the leaves is used for the treatment of gout. The young leaves bruised in milk, are used as a liniment in erysipeals. The leaves are beaten with honey and applied to ulcers. Dried & powdered fruit mixed with ghee or honey is used as a tonic and also in the treatment of Jaundice and rheumatism. The root is a powerful emetic and used for visceral obstructions. Its watery extract is used in leprosy.

7. Plant part used Stem and Leaves
8. Active Ingredients Alkaloid
9. Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones Released/identified

ii.Propagation methods and planting time

Locally grown

Stem cuttings. Planting time is rainy season.

  iii.Crop duration Perennial
10. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Tinosporon, Tinosporic acid, Tinosporol, Giloin, gilonin, berberine, cordifol, Tinosporidine.
11. Post Harvest Management The stem and leaves are harvested and dried in sun.
12. Internal consumption & export potential Mostly consumed by Ayurvedic pharmaceuticals
13. Action Rejuvinator, astringent, antipyretic, blood purifier and curative of dermatosis.
14. Uses General debility, pyrexia, skin diseases, gout, rheumatic arthrites and spure.

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11. GUGGAL

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Commiphora wightii

(Arn) Bhandari

2. Family Burseraceae
3. Yield

Plant Part

Actual Ingredients

700-900 g gum per plant

Tree yield an oliogum-resin-guggulipid

4. Habit and Habitat A shrub or small tree, reported to be found in Karnataka, Rajasthan, Deccan and Gujarat.
5. Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones released/identified ii.Propagation methods iii.Fertilizer doses iv.Irrigation Schedule v.Diseases, pests and their

controlq

Local types

Plants raised (about 80% success) by cutting. Application of 5 kg FYM and 25-50 gm urea per bush per year. Require moderate irrigation Plants are affected by white ants, Cercospora leaf spot and bacterial leaf blight.

Control: Pits are filled with FYM and treated with BHC or aldrin to protect the new plants from white ants.

6. Harvesting and yield Plants attain normal height and girth after 8-10 years of growth when they are ready for tapping of the gum by shallow incision on the bark between December and March.
7. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Gum resin contains guggulsteraes Z and E guggulsterols, two diterpenoids – a terpene, hydrocarbon named cembrne A and B, a cliterpene – alcohol – mukulol 3 camphorone and cambrene
8. Action and uses Carminative, antispasmodic, disphoretic, ecbolic, antisuppurative, aphrodisiac, emmenagogue. Gum resin is commonly used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
9. Compound Preparations Yogarajaguggulu, Kaishoreguggulu, Chandraprabha vati.
10. Marketing Gum – resin is in great demand.

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12. INDIAN BARBERY

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Berberis aristata DC
2. Family Berberidaceae
3. Local Name Chitra, Rasaut
4. Habit & Habitat An erect spinous shrub, 2 – 6 m. high, often forming gregarious patches, pale yellowish-brown bark, closely and rather deeply furrowed. Flowers are golden-yellow.

It occurs in the Himalayas between 2000 – 3000 m & also in Nilgiri Hills.

5. Plant part used Root bark, stem, wood fruit.
6. Actual Ingradients Barberine
7. Important States Assam, Bihar and Himalayan Region
8. Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

Released/identified

Local clones
9. Propagotion Propogation is from seeds, self sown in nature. Seedlings or cuttings can be taken during spring season after the berries are over. Layering is also recommended since the cuttings present some difficulties.
10. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Barberine (alkaloid)
11. Post Harvest Management Drying of barks
12. Utilisation The use of the roots as a source of Rasaut has been referred to. The dried berries are edible. The root bark is rich in alkaloidal content. Berberine, the principal alkaloid can be easily obtained from the roots in the form of its salts.

Rasaut, mixed with butter and alum, or with opium & lime-juice & painted over the eyelids as a useful house-hold remedy in acute conjuctivities and in chronic ophthalkmia.

A yellow dye is obtained from root and the stem. The berberry dye has been largely used in tanning & colouring of leather.

13. Action and uses Stomachic, astringent, tonic, antiperiodic, diaphoretic, antiphyretic, alerative, purgative. Used in menorrhagia, diarrhoea, jaundice, skin diseases, malarial fever.
14. Compound Preparations Darvyadi Kwath, Darvyadi leha, Darvyadi taila.

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13. ISABGOL

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Plantago Ovata Forsk
2. Family Plantaginaceae
3. Habit and Habitat A herb found in Punjab plains and low hills from Sutlej westwards, Sindh and Baluchistan.
4. Area under cultivation 50000 ha
5. Production in tonnes 48000 t of seeds
6. Yield

Plant part

Seeds 900-1500 kg/ha, Husk-225-375 kg/ha
7. Cultural Practices  
  i.Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

RI-87, RI-89, AMB-2, GI-1, GI-2, MI-4, MIB-121, HI-34, HI-2, HI-1, HI-5, NIHARIKA
  ii. Propagation methods and planting time By seeds

Mid October to Mid December

  iii. Fertilizers doses N:P 50:25 kg/ha

(25 kg of N + full P as basal dose

25 Kg N as top dressing 35 DAS)

  iv.Irrigation schedule 3 to 6 irrigations, Presowing, after sowing, Seedling stage, Spike formation stage, Flowering stage, Seed development stage depending upon the soil type and agro climatic condition.
  v. Diseases, pests and their control Downy mildew and Powdery mildew: Dithane M-45 or Dithane Z-78 @ 2.0 to 2.5 g/lit or Bordeaux mixture 6:3:100 for downy mildew and Karathane W.D. (0.2%) for Powdery mildew 6:3:100 for downy mildew, Karathane W.D (0.2%) for Powdery mildew.

Wilt : Wilt disease is also observed which can be controlled by seed treatment with Bavistin or Benlate 2.5g/kg of seed.

Sucking type of pests (Aphid) attach the crop. Spraying with Endosulfan @ 0.5% or Dimethodate @ 0.2% at fortnighty interval can control the aphids.

8. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Protein, polysaccharides, cellulose, pectin, oil, muscilage.
9. Post Harvest Management Crop matures during March-April (110-130 days). It should be harvested when atmosphere is dry. Harvested plants spread over and after 2 days they are threshed with tractor/bullocks. Pinkish type husk are removed from the seed coat by processing through a series of grinding in mills to separate husk.
10. Cost of cultivation Cost of Cultivation = Rs.19320/ha
11 Internal consumption and export potential Isabgol seed 17,680.63 tonnes valued at Rs.14,069.78 lakhs and husk 2580.29 tonnes valued at Rs.1663.73 lakhs exported during the period from April – October, 1997-98. Besides our internal consumption is also quite high.
12. Action and uses Demulcent, cooling, diuretic; used in inflammatory conditions of the mucous membrane of gastro intestinal and genitourinary tracts, in chronic dysentery, diarrhoea and constipation.
13. Parts used Seeds and seek husk. Used as single drug for cure of constipation and Dysentery.
14. Any other remarks This crop has good export potential and can be exploited commercially

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14. JATAMANSI

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Nardostachys jatamansi De
2. Family Valerianaceae
3. Habit and Habitat An erect perennial herb with long, stout, woody rootstock; found in alpine Himalayas at 3500-5000 m. extending eastwards to Sikkim and Bhutan. The species is vulnerable.
4. Yield

Plant part

Actual Ingredients

Rhizome (1290 kg/ha)

Valeopotriate and Essential Oil

5. Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

Dalhouse clones
  ii.Propagation methods and planting time Seeds and Roots. Seed nursery preparation in July/Aug. Transplating after 6 – 8 weeks (April/May)
  iii.Fertilizer doses 60:20:40 NPK
  iv.Irringation schedule One irrigation soon after sowing and 2-3 irrigations during rain free condition.
  v.Dieseases, pests and their control No serious pests and diseases.
5. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Volatile essential oil 0.5%

(Valeopotriates and Valerian oil)

6. Post Harvest Management Harvested roots washed and dried in shade condition.
7. Cost of cultivation

(Cost : benefit ratio)

Not commercially cultivated
8. Action and uses Aromatic, bitter, tonic, antispasmodic, deobstruent, stimulant, antiseptic, diuretic, emmenagogue. Used in epilepsy, hysteria, chorea, convulsions, palpitation of heart, mental disorders, insomnia.
9. Parts used Root-stock
10. Compound Preparations Mansyadi Kwath
11. Any other remarks Crop is not under regular cultivation, so there is a rapid depletion of the plant from its natural sources. Quality degradation under storage is reported.

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15. KALMEGH

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Andrographis paniculata
2. Family Acanthaceae
3. Yield

Plant part

Actual Ingredients

Panchang (Stem, leaf, flower, seed and root)

Kalmeghin Andrographolide (0.8-2.%%). Leaves contains maximum while stem contains minimum amount.

4. Habit and Habitat A small herb found throughout India in plains of Himachal Pradesh to Assam, Mizoram, Gujrat, Bihar and South India.
5. Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones released/identified

Local clones. There is no named variety.
  ii.Propagation methods and Planting timde Propagated by seed and cuttings. Seedlings/plantlets raised in nursery in Iast week of July.
  iii.Fertilizer doses Poultry manure or FYM 10 t/ha,

Castor cake 2 t/ha, 75 Kg N, 75 Kg P2O5.

  iv.Irrigation schedule Kharif season crop. If rain is inadequate then 2-9 irrigations are given.
6. Post Harvest Management Crop duration 90-100 days. Harvesting is done in end of October and 1st week of November. Harvest should be spread over on the floor and it should be covered at night to protect from dew. One week drying under shade is required. Average yield 2-2.5 t/ha dry herb.
7. Cost of cultivation

Gross return

Net return

Rs.10,000/ha

Rs.43,000/ha

Rs.33,000/ha

8. Internal consumption and export potential Ayurvedic formulations for debility, chronic malaria, jaundice, anemia and loss of apetite.

Andrographis preparations in different potencies for Homeopathic medicines.

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16. KATKI

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Picrohiza Kurroa Royle ex Benth
2. Family Scrophulariacae
3. Habit and Habitat A perennial herb, found in Alpine Himalayas from Kashmir to Sikkim at altitudes of 2700 – 4500 m.
4. Cultural Practices

Propagation methods

Through seeds and rhizome
5. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Bitter glucoside Kutkin (3.4%), Kurrin, (0.5%), Vanillic acid (0.1%).
6. Post Harvest Management Drying
7. Action and uses Bitter tonic, antiperiodic, cholagogue, stomachic. Used in dyspepsia, fever, diseases of liver & spleen including jaundice, anaemia, scorpion stings and in purgative preparations.
8. Parts used Root and rhizome
9. Compound Preparations Arogyavardhani, Katukadya lauha, Tikkadi Kwath, Tiktadighrita
10. Internal consumption and export potential Limited internal consumption
11. Any other remarks Threatened perennial herb but can be domesticated and cultivated.

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17. KOKUM

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Garcinia indica Linnacus
2. Family Clusiaceae
3. Habit and Habitat Frequent in evergreen and deciduous forests along the coasts on winward side of Western Ghats to 400 m.
4. Area under cultivation

Production

1200/ha

10200 t

5. Yield

Plant part

Actual Ingredients

Ripe Fruit, 8.5 t/ha

Hydroxy Citric Acid (HCA)

Cambogin & Camboginol

6. Distribution A tree found in Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, South Gujarat, Assam and West Bengal.
7. Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

Konkan Amrita and local types
  ii.Propagation methods and

planting time

By soft wood grafting,

July – August

  iii.Fertilizer doses 20 Kg FYM + 500 gm N + 250 gm P2O5 .
  iv.Irrigation schedule Normally grown as rainfed crop. Hence regular irrigation is not in vogue for grown up orchards.
  v. Disease and Pests Hardy crop. No major disease and pests. Leaf minor and pink disease sometime occurs which can be easily controlled.
8. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Arabin, essential oil, resin, tartaric, citric and phosporic acids, Hydroxy citric Acid.
9. Post Harvest Management Harvesting in March to April. Drying of fruits and bark
10. Cost of cultivation

Net return

Rs.13000/ha

Rs.34300/ha 1:1:37

11. Internal consumption and export potential Fruit mainly used for preparation of value added products like Kokum syrup, dried kokum rind etc. which are consumed within the country. However, kokum seed fat is exported to Netherlands, Italy, Japan, Singapore, U.K and Malaysia. Good export potential.
12. Any other remarks Hardy rainfed crop in coastal tropical region in the country. Crop has outs- standing medicinal properties (acidulent, dyscentry, pains, heart problems etc.) and also spice quality.

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18. KERTH

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Saussurea lappa
2. Family Compositae
3. Area under Cultivation About 100 ha
4. Production About 200 t
5. Yield

Plant part

Actual ingredients

Tuberous Roots (25000–30000 Kg/ha)

Essential oil (1.5%)

Saussunine (0.05%)

6. Important States Kashmir valley (J&K)

Lahaul spiti (HP)

Garhwal (UP)

7. Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

Kashmir & Punjab types
  ii.Propagation methods and planting time Seeds are sown in May
  iii.Irrigation schedule 5-6 irrigations between May-September.
  iv.Diseases, pests and their control No major pests and diseases
  v.Crop duration 3 years.
8. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Essential oil (1.5%). Essential oil constituents (Aplotaxena 20%, Sesquiterpenes (60%), Saussuine alkaloid, Kushtin, Lactones, Costunolide, Palmitic Acid, Dihydrodehydrocostus, lactone, propyl acetate, lauric acid.
9. Post Harvest Management Economical yield is obtained from 3 year old crop. Root is harvested in early spring. The roots are cleaned with water and dried for processing.
10. Cost of cultivation

(Cost : benefit ratio)

1:3.2 (in 3 years)

Cost of cultivation : Rs.14,000/-

Gross income : Rs. 45,000/-

11. Internal consumption and export potential Exported to China, Japan, Italy and France. Internal consumption is limited.

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19. LIQORICE

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn
2. Family Papilionaceae
3. Habit and Habitat A herb, reported to be found in sub-Himalayan tracts. Most of the requirenment of Pharmaceutical industries is met by import only. Recently introduced in Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana.
4. Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

Haryana Mulhati No.1 (HM No.1)

EC-111236, EC-124587, EC-21950

  ii.Propagation methods and planting time By root cuttings

February-March or July-August

  iii.Fertilizer doses 10 t FYM/ha applied at the time of planting Chemical fertilizers: N 80 kg (40 kg basal dose + 20 kg each at 2nd + 3rd year), P2O5 – 40 kg/ha and K2O 20 kg/ha.
  iv.Irrigation schedule At 30-45 days intervals in summer or in dry season, 7-8 irrigations are needed.
  v. Diseases, pests and their control

Disease Causal name Organism --------------- ---------------------Leaf spot Cercospora Root rot Rhizoctonia Collor rot batalicola Selerotium sps Wilting Fusarium sps

Leaf spot Alternaria tenius

Control

------------------------------------------------ i) Dithane M-45 or Dithane Z – 78 @ 0.2%. ii) Bavistine (0.1%) followed by Daltan 0.3%. Bavistin or benlate before planting Aerial portion should be cut and destroyed. Carbonxazin 0.5%

Bilitox 0.2%, 3-4 times at an interval of 6 days after appearance of disease symptoms.

  Pests: Attack of terminate has

Observed in light soils

 
  vi. Crop duration 2.5 to 3 year
5. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Glycyrrhizin (12-15%), Flavonoids (Apioliquiretin, liquiritin, Apiossliquiritin, Isoliquiritin, monin, liquisitigenin, Glycycocernarin, Glycysol and Glycyrin).
6. Post Harvest Management After digging the roots in September, left in the field for sun drying, later the roots are sorted out and cleaned. Dry roots stored in polythene lined bags.
7. Action and uses Laxative, demulcent, emllkient, tonics, aphrodisiac. Used in sore throat, cough, genitourinary diseases, anorexia, asthma, persistent low fever.
8. Compound Preparations Yashtyadi churna, Yashtyadi Kwath, Yashtimadhwadya tails.
9. Internal consumption and export potential It is imported (about 5,000 to 10,000 of dry roots annually) from Afghanistan, Iran and Iraq.
10. Any other remarks Cultivatrion not yet popularised.

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20. LONG PEPPER

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Long Pepper (Piper longum Linn)
2. Family Piperaceae
3. Habit and Habitat A slender climber with perennial woody roots, found in hotter parts of India with humid damp climate, viz., Western ghats, central Himalayas to Assam, Khasi and Mikir hills and lower hills of Bengal
4. Yield

Plant part

Actual Ingredients

Dry spike 650-700 kg/year/ha

Root yield 500 kg/ha Piperine (4.5%)

Essential oil 0.7%)

5. Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

Cheemathipali, Viswam
  ii.Propagation methods and planting time Rooted vine cuttings and suckers. Soon after the onset of monsoon
  iii.Fertilizer doses Mostly grown as an under crop on residual fertility. 20 t FYM/ha. Application of inorganic fertilizers are not yet reported.
  iv.Irrigation schedule During summer, one irrigation/week. Sprinkler irrigation is also beneficial.
  v. Diseases, pests and their control Leaf and vine rot & necrotic spots and blights on leaves (1% spray of Bordeaux mixture). Mealy bug attack (any systemic insecticides). Adults and nymphs of Helopeltis theivora attack (neems seed kernel extract @ 0.25%).
6. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Piperine and Piplartin
7. Post Harvest Management The first harvest from vines is available after six months of planting. Spike are ready for harvest after two months of formation. Harvested spikes and roots are sundried and stored in moisture proof bags. The produce fetches price according to the grade.
8. Action and uses Alterative, tonic, sedative, vermifuge, cholagogue, emmenagogue. Used in cough, cold, chronic bronchitis, palsy, gout, rheumatism, lumbago, insomnia, epilepsy, asthma, amorexia, piles, dyspepsia, leucoderma.
9. Compound Preparations Gudapippali, Pippalikhanda, Pipalyasva.
10. Internal consumption and export potential Huge internal consumption. 558.31 t imported in 1995-96 valued at Rs.76.92 lakhs and 38.523 t exported in 1995-96 valued at Rs.17.02 lakhs.

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21. MADHUNASHINI

1. Name of the Medicinal Plant Gymnema Sylvestre R. Br
2. Family Asclepiadaceae
3. Plant parts used Leave and roots
4. Habit and Habitat A perennial climber found in Western Ghats, Konkan, Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh.
5. Cultural Practices

i. Varieties/Types/Clones released/identified

Local clones
  ii.Propagation methods and planting time By cutting in rainy season
  iii.Fertilizer doses 10 g Nitrogen 6 5 g Phosphorous/vine
6. Biochemical Analysis

(Active ingredients)

Gymnemic acid, Quercitol, Lupeol,

B-amyrin, Stigmasterol

7. Harvesting After one year leaves are ready for harvesting
8. Harvesting period September to February
9. Post Harvest Management Drying of leaves and roots
10. Action and uses Astringent, stomachic, tonic, refrigerant, antidiabetic. Leaves have a peculiar property neutralising temporarily the taste sensation for sugar and used in diabetis.
11. Uses Diabetes, Liver disorders, cardiac Amenorrhoea, Sec. Amenorrhoea, Cough and Asthma
12. Compound Preparations Sarivadyasava, Sarivadyavaleha, Sarivadi Kwath, Sarivadi vati.

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22. SATAVARI

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Asparagus racemosus Willd
2. Family Liliaceae
3. Habit and Habitat A climber found almost all over India
4. Yield Plant

Actual Ingredients

Tuberous roots (100-150 q/ha 3rd year).

Saponin

5. Cultural Practices

i. Varieties/Types/Clones

ii.Propagation methods and planting time

Local clones

By seeds/adventitious roots March-April (Sowing)

July-August (Transplanting)

6. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Shatavarin I, II, III and IV (Roots) Quercetin, rutin and Hyperoside (Flowers and fruits)

Diosgenin and Quercetin – 3

Glucuronide (Leaves)

7. Post Harvest Management Tuberious roots are ready for harvesting in 3rd year. After harvesting, roots (tuberous) are washed and dried in sun for making of powder.
8. Action and uses Antidiarrhoetic, refrigerant, antidysenteric, diuretic, demulcent, nutritive tonic, galactagogue, aphrodisiac, antispasmodic. Used in consumption, epilepsy, diarrhoea, blood dysentery, haemophilic disorders, swellings.
9. Parts used Root
10. Compound Preparations Shatavari ghrita, Naraina taila, Vishnu Tails, Shatmulyadi lauha, Shatavari panaka.

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23. SHANKAPUSHPI

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Convolvulus pluricaulis
2. Family Convolvulaceae
3. Distribution A prostrate perennial herb found all over India, in Lalitpur district found in Talbehat, Meharauni and Lalitpur forest ranges. Present day availability is very low, approximately 50 – 60 quintal per year.
4. Part used Whole plant
5. Soil type Sandy loams, Block cotton soils Red sandy soils; PH 5.5 to 7. It is also grown in marginal lands with good drainage and some organic matter applied to the soil.
6. Rainfall 800 mm – 1200 mm
7. Field preparation Deep ploughing in the month of May and is allowed to weather. 15 tons per hectare farm yard manure is spread out in the field during June before rains. After FYM applied and after on set of monsoons second ploughing is done followed by two cross harrowing. The land is finally divided in to small blocks.
8. Sowing The seeds are broadcast mixing with sand or Line sowing 30 cm x 30 cm also done. After sowing light top dressing of FYM is given. Very light watering is done. Seedlings appear within 30 days.
9. Weeding & Hoeing Generally two weedings & hoeing are given within 40 – 50 days.l
10. Harvesting Plants get flowers in October and seeds developed in December. Crop harvesting period is January to May. Whole plant is dried in shade and is stored for marketing.
11. Biochemical analysis (active ingredients Alkaloids, Sankhpuspine
12. Action Intellect promoting, nervine tonic, Expectrorant, Anti-leprotic, Refrigerant
13. Uses Insomnia, Insanity and Epilepsy, Cough, Skin disorders, Hyperpyrexia, General debility

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24. SAFED MUSLI

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Chlorophytum borivillanum
2. Family Liliaceae
3. Yield

Plant part

Actual Ingredients

Tuberous roots (1000 kg/ha)

Saponin 2-4%

4. Distribution Southern Rajasthan, Western M.P and North Gujarat
5. Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

Selections viz. RC-2, RC-16, RC-36, RC-20, RC-23.

RC-37 have been collected and maintained at RAU, Udaipur

  ii.Propagationn methods and planting time By seed and by tuberous roots, second week of June
  iii.Fertilizer doses No chemical fertilizer tested on thir crop. 10-15 t FYM/ha provides good nutrient status for heatlhy growth.
  iv. Irrigation schedule First irrigation immediately after planting. If there is no rainfall, then irrigation may be done after 10-15 days interval.
  v.Diseases, pests and their control

a)Rotting of root during storage

b) Chlorosis in foilage

Infection of Aspergillus sps and Fusarium sps.

Control : Treatment with thiram and captan at 4.0 g/kg of roots reduced rotting during storage.

This may be due to Iron defiency.

  vi.Crop duration 90-110 days
6. Biochemical analysis

(Active ingredients)

Carbohydrates 39.10% - 42%

Protein 0.5% Saponin 2% - 4%

Root fiber 3% - 5%

7. Post Harvest Management Harvested roots are spread in the shade for about 4-7 days. Later, fleshy roots separated from the bunches. Slight pressure exerted by thumb and finger on the skin of root so that they get separated and milky white root come out. It should be cleaned and dried for 7-10 days.
8. Cost of cultivation

(Cost : benefit ratio)

Cost of cultivation = Rs.22,000/-

Gross return = Rs.65,000/-

Cost benefit ratio = 1:2:95

9. Internal consumption and export potential Mainly consumed in herbal based pharmaceutical industries. It has large and consistent market demand in the country and current projection of the annual demand is estimated between 300-500 t.
10. Any other remarks Safed musli is a well known tonic and a aphrodiasic drug given to cure general debility and extensively used in Ayurvedic medicines. Still major requirements of the parmaceutical industries is fulfilled through collection from the forest, thus it has become threatened species in India. Effort should be made for its regular cultivation to fulfil the growing demand.

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25. SENNA

1. Name of Medicinal Plant Cassia angustifolia vahi
2. Family Caesalpinaceae
3. Area under cultivation 25000 ha.
4. Production Leaves 22500 t and Pods 7500 t.
5. Yield

Plant part

Actual Ingredients

Leaves 1500-2000 kg/ha and pods 700-1000 kg/ha (Immature)

Sennosides (2.5% in leaf; 3.5-4% in poda)

6. Important States Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Delhi
7. Cultural Practices

i.Varieties/Types/Clones

released/identified

ALFT-2, Tinneyvalley senna and Sona.
  ii.Propagation methods and planting time 1 By seed, September-October in Tamilnadu. June – July in Western India.
  iii.Fertilizer doses 80 kg of N: 40 kg of P2o5: 20 Kg K2O/ ha. Nitrogen in 4 equal splits (sowing, 30 days thinning stage, after first and second harvest).
  iv.Irrigation schedule At sowing and thinning stage.
  v.Diseases, pests and their control Diseases

a).N.W India – Damping off at seedling stage caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola. Control – Thiram or Captan 2.5g/kg b) Dry rot caused by Macrophomina phaseoli c)Leaf spot caused by Phyllosticta spp. And Cercospora sp. Control – 0.5% Diathene M-45. Pests

  1. Green leaf eating caterpillar
  2. Pod borer (0.05% Endosulfan or 0.25% Carbaryl).
  vi. Crop duration 130-150 days
8. Biochemical analysis

(Active Ingredients)

Sennosides, A, B, C, D rhein, aloe-amine, Kaempferein and Iso-rhein in free and compound/glycoside forms.
9. Post harvest Management Shade drying for 3-5 days to bring down to 8% moisture level and light green to greeish yellow colour is preferred.
10. Action and uses Laxative, purgative. Used in constipation.
11. Compound Preparations Yashtyadi churna, Shataskar churna.

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List of Medicinal Plants Used in AYURVEDA, UNANI & SIDDHA SYSTEMS

Abeis webbiana Lindl.Curcuma longa Linn. Orchis latifolia Linn.
Abrus precatorius LinnCurcuma zedoaria Rosc. Orchis laxiflora Linn.
Abutilon indicum(Linn)Sw.Cuscuta epithymum Linn. Origanum vulgare Linn.
Acacia catechu Willd.Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Oroxylum indicum Vent.
Acacia leucophloea Willd.Cydonia oblonga Mill. Oryza sativa Linn.
Acacia nilotica & sp. indica (Benth) Branan.Cymbopogon citratus (DC)Stapf. Osmanthus fragrans Lour.
Acacia pennata (Linn.) willd.Cymbopogon jwarancusa Schult. Oxalis corniculata Linn.
Acalypha fructicosa forsk.Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.)Wats Paederia foetida Linn.
Acalypha indiaca linn.Cynodon dactylon Linn. Pers. Pandanus odoratissimus Linn.
Achillea millifolium Linn.Cyperus rotundus Linn. Pandanus tectorius Soland ex. Parkinson.
Achyranthes aspera Linn.Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. Papaver somniferum Linn.
Aconitum chasmanthum (Stapf. ex. Volmes)Datura metel Linn. Parmelia perlata Ach.
Aconitum ferox wall.Datura stramonium Linn. Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn.
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.Daucus carota Linn. Var. Sativa DC. Pastinaca secacul Linn.
Aconitum napellus Linn.Delphinium denudatum Wall. Pavetta indica Linn.
Aconitum palmatum D. Don.Dioscorea bulbifera Linn Pavonia odorata Willd.
Acorus calamus Linn.Diospyros tomentosa Roxb. Pedalium murex Linn.
Adenanthera pavomina Linn.Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. Peganum harmala Linn.
Adhatoda vasica Nees.Dolichos biflorus Linn. Pennisetum glaucum R. Br.
Adhatoda zeylanica Medic.Dolichos lab-lab Linn. Pentatropsis micrphylla W. & A.
Adiantum capilus veneris Linn.Dorema ammoniacum D.Don. Pergularia extensa N.E. BR.
Aegle marmelos Corr.Doronicum hookeri Hook.f. Peristrophe bicalyculata Nees.
Aerva lanata juss.Dracaena cinnabari Balf.f. Petroselinum crispum Mill Nym.ex. auct. Kew.
Aesulus hippocastanum Linn.Dracocephalum maldavica Linn. Peucedanum graveolens Linn.
Agaricus alba Linn.Dryopteris filix-mas (Linn.) Schott. Phaseolus trilobus Ait.
Agave americana Linn.Eclipta alba Hassk. Phaseolus radiatus Linn.
Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.Elaeocarpus ganitrus Linn. Phoenix dactylifera Linn.
Alangium salviifolium Linn.Elettaria cardamomum Maton. Phyla nodiflora (L) Greene.
Albizzia lebbeck BenthEmbelia ribes Burm.f. Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn.
Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb.) Desv.Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Phyllanthus niruri Linn.
Allium ascalonicum Linn.Enicostemma littorale Blume. Physalis alkekengi Linn.
Allium cepa Linn.Eriodendron anfractuosum DC. Picrorhiza kurroa Royle.ex.Benth.
Allium sativum LinnErythrina indica Lam. Pimpinella anisum Linn.
Alocaia indica schult.Euphorbia antiquorum Linn. Pinus gerardiana Wall.
Aloe barbadensis Mill.Euphorbia hirta Linn. Pinus roxburghii Sargent.
Alpinia galanga Linn.Euphorbia nerifolia Linn. Pinus succinifera Linn.
Alpinia speciosa schum.Euphorbia nivulia Buch-Ham. piper attenuatum Ham.
Alstonia scholaris R.Br.Euphorbia resinifera Berg. Piper betle Linn.
Althea officinalis Linn.Euphorbia royleana Boiss. Piper chaba Hunter.
Amaranthus polygonoides Linn.Euphorbia thomsoniana Boiss. Piper cubeba Linn. f.
Amaranthus tricolor Linn.Euphorbia thymifolia Linn. Piper longum Linn
Amaranthus tristis willd.Euphorbia tirucalli Linn. Piper nigrum Linn
Amomum subulatum Roxb.Euryale ferox Salisb. Piper retrofractum
Amorphophallus campanularus (Roxb) BLEvolvulus alsinoides Linn. Pistacia integerrima Stew.ex. Brandis.
Amorphophallus Sylaticus (Roxb.) Kunth.Evolvulus emarginatus Burm. Pistacia lentiscus Linn.
Anacyclus pyrethrum DC.Fagonia cretica Linn. Pistacia vera Linn.
Ananas comosus Merr.Feronia limonia (Linn.) Swingle. Pistia stratiotes Linn.
Andrographis paniculata Nees.Ferula asafoetida Boiss. Pisum sativum Linn.
Anethum Sowa Kurz.Ferula foetida Regel. Plantago lanceolata Linn.
Angelica archangelica Linn.Ferula galbaniflua Boiss et Buhse. Plantago major Linn.
Anogeissus latifolia Wall.Ferula jaeschkeana Vatke. Plantago ovata Forsk.
Anthemis nobilis Linn.Ficus arnottiana Miq. Pluchea lanceolata Oliver & Hiern.
Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.Ficus bengalensis Linn. Plumbago indica Linn.
Apium graveolens Linn.Ficus gibbosa Blume. Plumbago zeylanica Linn.
Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.Ficus hispida Linn.f. Plumeria alba Linn.
Areca catechu Linn.Ficus lacor Buch. Ham. Polygonatum cirrhifolium Royle .
Argemone mexicana Linn.Ficus oppositifolia Willd. Polygonum bestorta Linn.
Argyreia speciosa Sweet.Ficus racemosa Linn. Polypodium vulgare Linn.
Aristolochia bracteata Retz.Ficus religiosa Linn. Pongamia pinnata (L.)Merr.
Aristolochia indica Linn.Flacourtia cataphracta Roxb. Pontederia vaginalis Burm. f.
Aristolochia longa Linn.Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Portulaca oleracea Linn.
Aristolochia rotunda Linn.Fumaria parviflora Lam. Primula vulgaris Huds.
Artemesia absinthium Linn.Garcinia hanburii Hask. Prunus avium Linn.
Artemesia meritima Linn.Garcinia indica Chois. Prunus amygdalus Batsch
Artemesia vulgaris Linn.Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. Prunus cerasoides D.Don.
Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.Gardenia gummiferra Linn. f. Psoralea corylifolia Linn
Asarum europaeum Linn.Gentiana kurroo Royle. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.
Asparagus officinalis Linn.Glinus lotoides Linn. Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. f.
Asparagus racemosus Willd.Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Ptychotis ajowan DC.
Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav.Gmelina arborea Linn. Pueraria tuberosa DC.
Asteracantha Longifolia Nees.Gmelina asiatica Linn. Punica granatium Linn.
Astragalus hamosus Linn.Gossypium herbaceum Linn. Pygmacopremna herbacea(Roxb.) Moldenne.
Astragalus sarcacola Dymock.Gracicilaria confervodies Randia dumetorum Lam.
Atropa acuminata Royle.Grewia asiatica Linn. Raphanus sativus Linn.
Atropa belladona Linn.Grewia populifolia Vahl. Raphanus vulgaris
Azadirachta Indica A. Juss.Guruga pinnata Roxb. Rheum emodi Wall.
Azima tetracantha Lam.Gynandropsis gynandra (Linn.) Briquet. Rheum officianale Baillon.
Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Pennel.Gynmema sylvestre R.Br. Rheum palmatum Linn.
Baliospermum montanum Muell. Arg.Habenaria intermedia D.Don. Rhus coriaria Linn.
Balsamodendron candatum.Hamelomena aromatica Rhus parviflora Roxb.
Bambusa bambos Druce.Hedychium spicatum Ham.ex. Smith. Rhus succedanea Linn.
Barleria prionitis Linn.Helicteres isora Linn. Ricinus communis Linn.
Barringtonia acutangula Gaertn.Helleborus niger Linn. Rosa alba Linn.
Bauhinia racemosa Lam.Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. Rosa centifolia Linn.
Bauhinia variegata LinnHibiscus rosa - sinensis Linn. Rosa damascena Mill.
Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn.Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. Rosa gallica Linn.
Berberis aristata DC.Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. Rubia cordifolia Linn.
Bergenia ligulata (Wall) Engl.Holoptelea integrifolia Planch. Rubia tinctorium Linn.
Blepharis edulis Pers.Hordeum vulgare Linn. Ruellia strepens Linn.
Blumea balsamifera Dc.Hydnocarpus laurifolia (Dennst.) Sleumer. Rumex maritimus Linn.
Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.Hydnocarpus venenata Gaertn. Rumex vesicarius Linn.
Boerhaavia verticilata Poir.Hygrophilla auriculata (Sch.) Heine. Ruta graveolens Linn.
Borago officinalis Linn.Hyoscyamus niger Linn. Saccharum munja Roxb.
Borassus flabellifer Linn.Hyssopus officinalis Linn. Saccharum officinarum Linn.
Boswellia serrata Roxb.Illicium verum Hook.f. Salix alba Linn.
Brassica nigra (Linn) Hook.Imperata cylindrica Beauv. Salix caprea Linn.
Brassica rapa Linn.Indigofera aspalathoides vahl ex DC. Salmalia malabarica schott. & Endl.
Brucea sativa Mill.Indigofera tinctoria Linn. Salvadora persica Linn.
Bryonopis laciniosa (L.) Naud.Inula racemosa Hook.f. Salvia aegyptiaca Linn.
Buchanania angustifolia Roxb.Iondium suffruticosum Ging. Salvia haematodes M.
Buchanania lanzan spreng.Ipomoea digitata Linn. Santalum album Linn.
Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze.Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. Saraca indica Linn.
Cadaba farinosa Forsk.Iris ensata Thunb. Sarcostemma brevistigma W. & A.
Caesalpinia bonducella Flem.Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. Satureja hortensis Linn.
Caesalpinia crista Linn.Jasminum officinale Linn Saussurea hypoleuca Spreng.
Caesalpinia sappan Linn.Jatropha curcus Linn. Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke.
Cajanus cajan (Linn) Millsp.Jatropha glandulifera Roxb. Schizachyrum exile (Hochst) Stapf.
Calamus rotang Linn.Juglans regia Linn. Schrebera swietenioides Roxb.
Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl.Juniperus communis Linn. Selinium tenuifolium Wall.
Calotropis gigantea (Linn) R. Br. ex. Ait.Jussiea saffruticosa Linn. Semecarpus anacardium Linn.f.
Calotropis procera (Ait) R.Br.Lactuca sativa Linn. Sesamum indicum Linn.
Calycopteris floribunda Lam.Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl. Sesbania grandiflora (Linn.) Pers.
Cannabis sativa Linn.Lallemantia royleana Benth. Sesbania rantifolia
Capparis sepiariaLamprachaeniam microcephalum Benth. Sesbania sesban (Linn.) Merr.
Capparis spinosa Linn.Lannea grandis (Dennst.) Engl. Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.
Capparis Zeylanica Linn.Laportea crenulata Gaud. Sida acuta Burm.
Capsicum annum Linn.Lasia aculeata Linn. Sida cordifolia Linn.
Cardiospermum helicacabum Linn.Laurus nobilis Linn. Sida rhombifolia Linn.
Careya arborea Roxb.Lavandula stoechas Linn. Sida veronicaefolia Lam.
Carica papaya Linn.Lawsonia alba Lam. Smilax china Linn.
Carissa carandas Linn.Lawsonia inermis Linn. Solanum indicum Linn.
Carthamus tinctorius Linn.Lens culinaris medic. Solanum nigrum Linn.
Carum carvi Linn.Leonotis nebetaefolia R. Br. Solanum torvum Swartz.
Cassia absus Linn.Leonurus cardiaca Linn. Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad & Wendl.
Cassia angustifolia Vahl..Lepidium sativum Linn. Sphaeranthus amaranthoidas Burm.
Cassia fistula Linn.Leptadenia reticulata W. & A. Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.
Cassia occidentalis Linn.Leucas aspera spreng. Stereospermum suaveolens DC.
Cassia tora Linn.Lilium polyphyllum D. Don. Streblus asper Lour.
Cedrus deodar (Roxb.) Loud.Limona acidissima W. & A. Strychnos ignatti Berg.
Celastrus peniculatus willd.Linum usitatissimum Linn. Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.
Centella asiatica (Linn) Urban.Lippia nodiflora Mich. Strychnos potatorum Linn. f.
Centipeda minima (Linn.) A.Br. et Aschers.Liquidambar orientalis Miller. Styrax benzoin Dryand.
Centratherum anthelminticum (Willd) Kuntze.Litsea chinensis Lam. Swertia chirata Buch.Ham.
Ceratonia siliqua Linn.Lodoicea maldivica Pers. Symplocos racemosus Roxb.
Cheiranthus cheiri Linn.Luffa acutangula (Linn.)Roxb. Syzygium aromaticum Merr & L.M.Perry.
Chevica roxburghii Miq.Lupinus albus Linn. Syzygum cumini (Linn.) Skeels.
Chlorophytum arundinaceum BakerLycium barbarum Linn. Tamarindus indica Linn.
Chrysanthemum indicum Linn.Madhuca indica J.F.Gmel. Tamarix articulata Vahl.
Cicer arietinum Linn.Madhuca longifolia (Kaenig) Macbr. Tamarix gallica Linn.
Cinchona officinalis Linn.Mallotus phillippinensis Muell.Arg. Taraktogenos kurzii King.
Cinnamomum cassia Blume .Malus sylvestris Mill. Taxus baccata Linn.
Cinnamomum camphora Nees & Eberm.Malva sylvestris Linn. Tecomella undulata (G.Don.)Seem.
Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm.Mangifera indica Linn. Tephrosia purpurea (L.)Pers.
Cipadessa fruticosa Bl.Manilkara kauki Dub. Tephrosia spinosa Pers.
Cissampelos pareira Linn.Maranta arundinacea Linn. Terminalia arjuna W.& A.
Cissus quadrangularis Linn.Marsdenia tenacissima Wight & Arn. Terminalia bellerica Roxb.
Cissus setosa Roxb.Mathiola Incana R.Br. Terminalia chebula Retz.
Citrullus colocynthis Schrad.Matricaria chamomilla Linn. Teucrium chamaedrys Linn.
Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.Melia azedarach Linn. Thalictrum foliolosum DC.
Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) Swingle.Melilotous alba Desv. Thespesia populnea soland ex correa.
Citrus aurantium Linn.Melissa parviflora Benth. Thymus serpyllum Linn.
Citrus limon (Linn.)Burm. f.Melothria maderaspatana (Linn) Cogn. Tinospora cordifolia (Willd) Miers.
Citrus medica LinnMelothria perpusilla Cogn. Toddalia asiatica Lam.
Citrus reticulata Blanco.Mentha arvensis Linn. Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.)Sprague.
Cleome icosandra Linn.Merremia tridentata Hallier f. Trachyspermum roxburghiamum (D.C.) Sprague
Clerodendrum inerme (Linn.) Gaertn.Mesua ferrea Linn. Tragia involucrata Linn.
Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn.f.Michelia champaca Linn. Trapa bispinosa Roxb.
Clerodendrum serratum (Linn)Moon.Microstylis muscifera Ridl. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn.
Clitoria ternatea Linn.Microstylis wallichii Lindl. Trianthema decandra Linn.
Coccinia cordifolia Cogn.Mimosa pudica Linn. Tribulus terrestris Linn.
Coccinia indica W & A.Mimusops elengi Linn. Tricholepis angustifolia DC.
Cochlospermum religosum (Linn) Alston.Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Trichosanthes bracteata (Lam) voigt.
Cocos nucifera Linn.Mollugo cerviana Ser. Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn.
Colchicum luteum Baker.Momordica charantia Linn. Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.
Coldenia procumbens Linn.Moringa oleifera Linn. Trifolium alexandricum Linn.
Coleus amboinicus Lour.Morus acedosa Griff. Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.
Coleus vettiveroides K.C. Jacob.Mucuna prurita Hook Trigonella uncata Boiss.
Commiphora mukul (Hook ex stocks) Engl.Murraya koenigii Spreng. Triticum aestivum Linn.
Commiphora myrrha (Nees)Engl.Musa paradisiaca Linn. Typhonium trilobatum (Linn.) Schott.
Commiphora opobalsamum (Linn.)Engl.Myrica nagi Thunb. Uraria picta Desv.
Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy.Myristica fragrans Houtt. Usnea longissima Asch.
Convolvulus scaonia Linn.Myrtus communis Linn. Valeriana wallichii DC.
Coptis teeta wallNarcissus tazetta Linn. Vateria indica Linn.
Cordia dichotama forst.f.Nardostachys jatamansi DC. Vernonia cinerea Less.
Coriandrum sativum Linn.Nasturtium officinale R.Br. Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.)Nash.
Corrallocarpus epigaeus Benth ex.Hook f.Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn Vicia faba Linn.
Corylus avellana Linn.Nepeta Cataria Linn. Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.
Coscinium fenestratum Colebr.Nepeta hindostana (Roth.) Haines. Viola odorata Linn.
Crataeva nurvala Buch-Ham.Nerium indicum Linn. Vitex negundo Linn.
Crotalaria juncea Linn.Nicotiana tabacum Linn. Vitis vinifera Linn.
Croton tiglium Linn.Nigella sativa Linn. Withania somnifera Dunal.
Cryptolepis buchanani Roem & Schult.Nymphaea alba Linn. Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz.
Ctenolepis cerasiformis Naud.Nymphaea lotus Linn. Wrightia tinctoria R.Br.
Cucumis melo var. utilissimus Duthie & Fuller.Nymphaea stellata Willd. Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb.
Cucumis sativus Linn.Ocimum basillicum Linn. Zataria multiflora Boiss
Cucurbita moschata Duchesne.Ocimum gratissimum Linn. Zingiber officinale Rosc.
Cuminum cyminum Linn.Ocimum sanctum Linn. Zingiber officinarum.
Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.Oldenlandia umbellata Linn. Zingiber zerumbet Rosc ex. Smith.
Curcuma amada Roxb.Olea europaea Linn. Zizyphus jujuba Linn.
Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.Onosma bracteatum Wall. Zizyphus sativa Gaertn.
Curcuma aromatica Salisb.Operculina turpethum (Linn.) Silva Manso. Zizyphus xylopyra willd.

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